Over the years, potato has become an important crop for both farmers
and consumers in Pakistan. It is the fourth most important crop by volume
of production and it gives high yields and high returns to farmers. Potato
having a high nutritive value and these contributes more protein and iron
than other vegetables in the average diet and are also useful sources of
thiamine, niacin and several other nutrients including fiber. Almost 86% of
potato area and production of Pakistan is achieved from Punjab i.e. Okra,
Sahiwal, Kasur, Sialkot, Sheikhupura, Jhang, Narowal, Pak patten,
Gujranwala, T.T Singh, Khanewal and Lahore. Remaining share is produced
by KPK 9%, Baluchistan 4.5% and Sindh 0.5%.
Pakistan is self-sufficient in potatoes for household consumption. Important Potato Growing Districts
Punjab: Okara, Sahiwal, anwala, Kasur, Sialkot, Sheikhupura, Jhang, Lahore
Narowal, Pak pattan, Gujr T.T. Singh.
KPK: SNowshera, Dwat, Balakot, Sakardu and Mansehra.
Baluchistan: Pishin, Killa Saifulla and Kalat.
Gilgit Bultistan: Gilgit
these are the important potato growing districts, accounting among
themselves for 78 percent of the total production of the crop.
Potato is a tasty, nutritive and highly digestible vegetable with 75 per
cent water contents. One hundred grams of potato possesses 22g
carbohydrate, two gram protein, 90 kilocalories energy, 13mg calcium,
17mg vitamin C, 11mg riboflavin 1.2 mg niacin and traces of certain other
minerals and fiber. Potato is eaten intensively in a variety of forms such as
boiled, baked, and cooked. As vegetable it is eaten alone as well as mixed
with other vegetables and as snacks, the most popular of them being the
finger chips. It has medical significance also.
a. Sprout Development
• Sprout development from eyes on seed tubers and
grow upward to emerge from the soil.
• Roots begin to develop at the base of emerging
b. Vegetative Growth
• Leaves and branch stems develop from
aboveground nodes along emerged sprouts.
• Roots and stolons develop at below ground
• Photosynthesis begins
c. Tuber Initiation
• Tubers form at stolon tips but are not yet
• In most cultivars the end of this stage coincides
with early flowering.
d. Tuber Initiation
• Tuber cells expand with the accumulation of
water, nutrients and carbohydrates.
• Tuber becomes the dominant site for deposition
of carbohydrates and mobile inorganic nutrients.
• Vines turn yellow and lose leaves, photosynthesis
decreases tuber growth slows and vines eventually
• Tubers dry matter content reaches a maximum
and tuber skins set.
Potato is grown under temperate, subtropical and tropical conditions. It
is essentially a "cool weather crop", with temperature being the main
limiting factor on production. Optimum temperature for germination,
vegetative growth and tuber formation in potato is 25°C, 20°C and 16-24°C
Red and white skin potato varieties are cultivated in the country. The
white skin varieties are Santé, Multan, and Diamantes.
The potato can be grown almost on any type of soil except saline and
alkaline soils. Naturally loose soils which offer the least resistance enlargement of the tubers are preferred and loamy and sandy loam soils
that are rich in organic matter with good drainage and aeration is most
Potato is propagated vegetative. Well decomposed farm yard manure
at 200-250 mounds per acre is recommended to be incorporated in the soil
before land preparation.
for autumn and summer sowing potatoes complete potato is used.
Potato tubers about one week before sowing are taken out from cold
storage and spread at a cool and ventilated place usually under the shade
of a tree.
Potatoes are easy to grow, but they prefer cool weather so you should
try to get them into the ground at the right time. The time for plantation of
autumn crop, which contributes more than 70% of the total yield, starts.
Typical Potato Crop Irrigation Schedule Nau hero Firoz Sindh Pakistan
The Potato crop in Pakistan is affected by many pests and diseases.
From these diseases potato viruses, powdery scab, potato cyst nematode,
aphids and white grub are the most damaging ones. Surveys done by
Pakistani workers have revealed that viruses, powdery scab and aphids are wide
wide spread, white grub are serious problems in the northern hilly areas.
a. FUNGAL DISEASES
I. Black Scurf (Rhizoctonia solani)
Black Scurf is a fungal disease of potatoes and is caused by Rhizoctonia
solani. It is usually found as irregular, black, scab-like marks on the skin of
the tubers. They are easily scraped off with a fingernail and this releases a
distinctive 'fungal' smell. These black masses are the resting phase of the
organism and are made up of compacted mycelia, called sclerotia. They do
not spoil the flesh of the tubers and they are still edible; also the sclerotia
do not become any larger during storage.